This guide lists national organizations that provide information on a range of issues related to recruiting, hiring, training, and retaining employees with disabilities. Specific subjects addressed include worksite accommodations, job analysis, small-business opportunities, supported employment, and personal assistance services. The information contained here is intended for individuals with disabilities, their families, the professionals who work with them, and employers.
Some organizations maintain sites for employers to post available positions, allowing individuals to search for jobs online. Others assist young people in their transition from school to work by providing internship and mentoring opportunities. Still others offer information about training, certification, and continuing education in rehabilitation.
In addition to providing organizational addresses and phone numbers, this edition of the guide lists social media platforms where each organization is active.
An ebraille file is available for this resource: Employment of People with Disabilities: A Resource Guide (2020) [electronic braille (BRF)]. Also of interest is the NLS Employment minibibliography.
- General Organizations
- Organizations Serving People Who Are Blind of Visually Impaired
- Self-Development and Career Services for People with Disabilities
- Selected Organizations
- Selected Bibliography, 2015–2019
- Selected Internet Resources
The Access Board
Develops and maintains accessibility requirements for the built environment, telecommunications equipment, electronic and information technology, and transit vehicles. Provides technical assistance and training on these guidelines and enforces accessibility standards for federally funded facilities. Publications accessible in print, online, and in alternate formats.
Administration, Rehabilitation, and Postsecondary Education (ARPE) and Interwork Institute
Promotes the integration of individuals–including those with disabilities–into all aspects of school, work, family, and community life. Conducts research, training, and education through various centers such as the Rehabilitation Counselor Program, Center for American Indian Rehabilitation, Center for Pacific Studies, National Rehabilitation Leadership Institute, and the Census Information Center.
Alternative Work Concepts
Helps individuals with physical and intellectual disabilities gain employment in their communities. Offers technical assistance to national and international agencies for placing individuals with multiple disabilities into integrated employment.
APHSA Collaborative Centers
Represents state and local health and human service agencies through a member network and three national Collaborative Centers. Connects members to national policymakers and health and human services organizations in education, housing, employment, and other fields. Offers access to professional education and development conferences.
The Arc of the United States
1825 K St. NW, Ste. 1200
Washington, DC 20006
Works with the public and private sectors to recruit, train, and hire adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Offers support to new hires and their employers, including training on providing accommodations.
Association for Persons in Supported Employment (APSE)
Provides advocacy and education for individuals in supported employment, their families, and the professionals who work with them. Promotes national, state, and local policy development that enhances inclusion and empowerment of people with severe disabilities. Offers online publications and links to resources and organizations.
Careers Support Solutions
400 Columbus Ave., Ste. 123S
Valhalla, NY 10595
Helps individuals who have learning, intellectual, developmental, psychiatric, and/or physical disabilities find jobs. Provides extensive on-the-job training and ongoing support services.
Disabled American Veterans
Helps veterans who have service-connected disabilities regain health, learn new trades or professions, rejoin the civilian world, and secure disability benefits. Works with Congress and federal agencies to ensure that veterans’ preferences are upheld and that veterans receive priority access to employment services. Offices nationwide can be searched at www.dav.org/veterans/find-your-local-office. Has 1,300 chapters and over one million members nationwide.
Disabled Business Persons Association
San Diego State University—Interwork Institute
6367 Alvarado Ct., Ste. 350
San Diego, CA 92120
Offers free self-employment and rehabilitation services to individuals with disabilities and assists professionals in rehabilitation, career, and business counseling nationwide.
141 W. Jackson Blvd., Ste.1400A
Chicago, IL 60604
Provides job training and employment services to adults with physical and mental disabilities. Helps individuals learn skills to enter the workforce or to return to work after an illness or injury.
Enable America, Inc.
PΟ Βοx 3031
Tampa, FL 33601-3031
Works with elected officials, government agencies, and employers to help people with disabilities achieve greater independence through civic involvement, employment, and community participation. Offers an online jobs board for job seekers to search for career opportunities.
Goodwill Industries International, Inc.
Serves people with workplace disadvantages and disabilities through a network of community-based, autonomous member organizations in the United States, Canada, and 23 other countries. Provides job training and employment services, job placement opportunities, and post-employment support.
Job Access—Ability Jobs
Provides a free service for people with disabilities to search for jobs online and to post resumes that companies can browse. Charges a fee to employers for posting their employment opportunities and for advertising online.
Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
Facilitates the employment and retention of workers with disabilities by providing information on job accommodation options through case-by-case evaluations and the Searchable Online Accommodation Resource (SOAR) system. Offers technical assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act and other disability-related legislation.
K. Lisa Yang and Hock E. Tan Institute on Employment and Disability
Advances the participation of people with disabilities in all facets of American life through projects, technical assistance, training, presentations, and program evaluation. Provides online publications.
Mays Mission for the Handicapped, Inc.
Provides employment and on-the-job training in the printing industry to people with disabilities. Areas of interest include graphic arts, letter shop, bindery, data processing, and assembly. Offers college scholarships to individuals with a physical or mental disability and sponsors several summer camps in Arkansas.
5606 Dower House Rd.
Upper Marlboro, MD 20772
Advocates for and empowers individuals of differing abilities to transform their lives through unique opportunities to work and play in the community. Provides employment, job and life-skills training, and recreational opportunities.
National Business & Disability Council at the Viscardi Center
Helps businesses create accessible work conditions for their employees and accessible products for consumers. Responds to inquiries about Americans with Disabilities Act compliance, building and product accessibility, reasonable accommodations, and staff training. Offers a free resume database for college graduates with disabilities and job listings from member organizations.
National Center on Workforce and Disability
Provides employment, education, and training services for individuals with intellectual and physical disabilities. Works to ensure meaningful access to employment and training programs and services through public systems, as well as private organizations and employers.
National Council on Disability
Promotes policies, programs, practices, and procedures that enforce equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities. Facilitates economic self-sufficiency, independent living, and community integration. Provides free publications that can be downloaded from the Internet or obtained in print.
National Organization on Disability
Offers online resources and articles to help individuals with disabilities obtain competitive, productive, and paid employment. Encourages corporate leaders and their companies to employ people with disabilities through the CEO (Chief Executive Officers) Council. Works with schools, community service providers, and local employers to coordinate paid internships for high school students with disabilities through the Start on Success Program.
National Rehabilitation Information Center
Assembles, maintains, and provides access to disability-related research; furnishes fact-retrieval services; and develops print and electronic resources.
8401 Old Courthouse Rd.
Vienna, VA 22182
Provides job opportunities for highly qualified people with significant disabilities. Provides training and helps identify employment options for individuals.
US Department of Education
Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education
400 Maryland Ave. SW
Washington, DC 20202-7100
Administers and coordinates programs related to adult education and literacy, career and technical training, and community colleges. Has online reports and links to career, technical, and adult education by state.
US Department of Education
Rehabilitation Services Administration
400 Maryland Ave. SW
Washington, DC 20202-7100
Administers grant programs and service projects that help individuals with disabilities obtain employment and support, such as job training and medical and psychological services. Provides funds to state vocational rehabilitation agencies for employment-related services. Principal federal agency authorized by Congress to carry out titles of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Carries out the Randolph-Sheppard Act, which helps blind vendors set up shops in federal agencies. Funds the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youth and Adults Act.
US Department of Justice
Disability Rights Section
950 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20530
Provides information and technical assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Certifies building codes that meet or exceed the ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Offers ADA publications online in English and Spanish.
US Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Collects, processes, analyzes, and disseminates statistical data, including data on worker fatalities, illnesses, and injuries on the job. Publishes the Monthly Labor Review (www.bls.gov/mlr), a journal providing the latest research on the labor market and economy.
US Department of Labor
Office of Disability Employment Policy
Seeks to increase employment opportunities for people with disabilities by expanding access to training, assistive technology, entrepreneurial development, integrated employment, and small-business opportunities. Provides links to a variety of disability employment-related research and technical assistance resources. Builds partnerships with employers and state and local agencies to increase awareness of the benefits of hiring people with disabilities.
US Department of Veterans Affairs
Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service
810 Vermont Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20420
Assists veterans with service-connected disabilities to prepare for, obtain, and maintain employment. Works with employers to recruit, interview, and hire veterans with disabilities. Provides rehabilitation services to dependents of veterans who meet program eligibility requirements.
US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Seeks to eradicate discrimination in the workplace as the civil rights employment-law agency. Provides statistics and online information about laws and regulations, filing a charge of discrimination, and youth in the workforce (youth.eeoc.gov). Offers online fact sheets on discrimination and disability, some of which are available in foreign languages, through the Publications section of its website.
US Small Business Administration (SBA)
409 Third St. SW
Washington, DC 20416
Offers programs and services, such as technical, financial, and contracting assistance to help small businesses succeed. Provides English- and Spanish-language information and instructions, including forms and applications, on starting and maintaining small businesses. Maintains an Office of Native American Affairs, Office of Veterans Business Development, and Office of Women’s Business Ownership.
US Social Security Administration
1100 W. High Rise
6401 Security Blvd.
Baltimore, MD 21235
Provides publications and information on disability benefits. Offers services at the local level through ten regional offices, six processing centers, and approximately 1,300 field offices.
US Social Security Administration
Ticket to Work
Helps Social Security beneficiaries go to work, get a good job that may lead to a career, and become financially independent, without losing access to Medicare or Medicaid.
VCU WorkSupport (formerly the Employment Support Institute)
Assists in bridging the gap between employers looking for qualified and reliable employees and job applicants with disabilities. Focuses on understanding and meeting the needs of both job-seekers and employers.
World Institute on Disability (WID)
Helps eliminate barriers to full social integration and increase employment, economic security, and health care for persons with disabilities. Creates innovative programs and tools; conducts research, training, public education, and advocacy campaigns; and provides technical assistance.
American Council of the Blind (ACB)
1703 N Beauregard St., Ste. 420
Alexandria, VA 22311
Lists nationwide job announcements in the online ACB Job Bank at http://acb.org/jobs. Presents online eSight Disability Employment Resource of the Day, which offers articles on employment issues. Has special-interest affiliates, including ACB Government Employees, Blind Information Technology Specialists, and Independent Visually Impaired Enterprisers.
American Foundation for the Blind (AFB)
2 Penn Plaza, Ste. 1102
New York, NY 10121
Maintains a database of career information searchable by job titles, occupational categories, or interest areas at www.afb.org/info/living-with-vision-loss/
for-job-seekers/12. In partnership with the Canadian Institute for the Blind, AFB offers MentorMatch (www.afb.org/careerconnect/connect.aspx) an online service that pairs people searching for a career with a mentor who is blind or visually impaired and working in the desired field of employment.
Blinded American Veterans Foundation (BAVF)
PO Box 65900
Washington, DC 20035-5900
Offers employment networking and rehabilitation counseling for veterans who are blind. BAVF supports medical research on sensory disabilities.
Blinded Veterans Association (BVA)
1101 King Street, Ste. 300
Alexandria, VA 22314
Serves veterans who became blind or visually impaired during or after their military service. BVA assists veterans in obtaining benefits, rehabilitation training, and employment and offers scholarships to spouses and dependent children.
Hadley Institute for the Blind
Offers a range of courses on small business and entrepreneurship to individuals fourteen years of age and older who are visually impaired. Creates personalized learning opportunities that empower people to thrive at home, at work, and in their communities.
National Federation of the Blind (NFB)
Connects blind and low vision students with successful blind role models to help navigate the transition from education to career success. NFB offers scholarships and awards to teachers, professionals, entrepreneurs, and organizations whose work benefits the blind community.
National Industries for the Blind
3000 Potomac Ave.
Alexandria, VA 22305
Operates under the Javits-Wagner-O’Day Act, a mandatory federal purchasing program that provides employment for people who are blind or visually impaired.
World Services for the Blind (also known as Lions World Services for the Blind)
2811 Fair Park Blvd.
Little Rock, AR 72204
Offers a personal adjustment program, vocational evaluation and training, job placement assistance, assistive technology learning center, college preparatory program, and low-vision clinic. Administers the Success Fund, a scholarship that offers access to life skills training for anyone who has been turned down by their state vocational rehabilitation agency.
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Project on Science, Technology, and Disability
Offers paid summer internship opportunities in science, engineering, mathematics, computer science, and some fields of business for undergraduate and graduate students with disabilities.
American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
2013 H. St. NW, 5th Floor
Washington, DC 20006
Administers an academic internship program through the Washington Center for Internships and Academic Seminars, as well as summer congressional and information technology internships for college students with disabilities. Manages an annual Disability Mentoring Day to promote career development for students and job-seekers with disabilities though job shadowing and hands-on career exploration.
Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE)
Advances education that prepares youth and adults for careers. Maintains an online Career Center where students and parents can explore careers and search the job bank. Provides an online Resource Center that includes member-submitted lesson plans and electronic discussion boards. Sponsors the annual observance of Career and Technical Education Week.
Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired (AER)
Supports professionals who work in education and rehabilitation of children and adults who are blind or visually impaired. Provides access to continuing education opportunities and job openings in the field. Shares information about certification and an online listing of universities that offer courses and degree programs in education and rehabilitation. Sells publications.
Bridges from School to Work
10400 Fernwood Rd.
Bethesda, MD 20817
Helps local employers and adolescents with disabilities who are exiting special education to develop mutually beneficial job placements. Provides job training and work experience to enhance employment potential. Operates in Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, New York City, Oakland, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C.
DO-IT (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology)
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195-4842
Offers career-preparation and mentoring resources for students, parents, educators, and employers. Promotes computer and networking technologies to increase independence, productivity, and participation in education and employment. Distributes publications, videotapes, and training materials.
National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET)
Provides technical assistance and disseminates information for adolescents with disabilities and their families that focuses on making a successful transition from the secondary education curriculum to meaningful employment and independent living. Fosters development of partnerships at the national, state, and local levels.
Partners for Youth with Disabilities
Provides one-to-one and group mentoring programs in which adult mentors with disabilities act as role models and provide support to improve the lives of young people in areas such as self-esteem, education, and career development.
US Department of Labor
Workforce Recruitment Program for College Students with Disabilities
Maintains a free nationwide database of prescreened, qualified postsecondary students and recent college graduates with disabilities who are available for permanent and temporary positions. Employers can search the database by state or job category and obtain specific information on candidates’ qualifications.
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Consortia of Administrators for Native American Rehabilitation
1425 K St. NW, Ste. 350
Washington, DC 20005
Provides a forum for administrators of rehabilitation projects, which are listed online, to increase and enhance the quality of services for Native Americans with disabilities.
International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals
Promotes interdisciplinary rehabilitation, disability management, and return-to-work services for people who are disabled or economically disadvantaged. Provides continuing education for service providers and supports innovation in business development and management.
National Board for Certified Counselors
Monitors the National Counselor Examination for Licensure and Certification. Maintains Counselor Find, a searchable online directory of professional counselors.
National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
c/o Institute for Educational Leadership
4301 Connecticut Ave. NW, Ste. 100
Washington, DC 20008-2304
Helps state and local workforce development agencies create better systems to serve youth with disabilities. Offers support to organizations that deliver workforce development services. Improves the knowledge and skills of individuals who provide direct services to youth.
National Council on Rehabilitation Education (NCRE)
Advocates for improvement of rehabilitation services for individuals with disabilities through research and education of rehabilitation professionals.
National Rehabilitation Association
Advocates for professionals in the field of rehabilitation and promotes opportunities for career advancement. Divisions include the National Association of Multicultural Rehabilitation Concerns and the National Rehabilitation Association of Job Placement and Development.
Vocational Evaluation and Career Assessment Professionals (VECAP)
PO Box 963
Berryville, VA 22611
Represents professionals who provide vocational evaluation, career assessment, and career decision-making. Maintains a job bank for its members.
A Case for Patient Philanthropy Supporting Jobs and Careers for Military-Connected Americans. Institute for Veterans and Military Families, Syracuse University. December 2018. https://ivmf.syracuse.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Schultz-Report_A-Case-for-Patient-Philanthropy-1.17.19.pdf External.
Ameri, Mason, Lisa Schur, Meera Adya, F. Scott Bentley, Patrick McKay, and Douglas Kruse. “The Disability Employment Puzzle: A Field Experiment on Employer Hiring Behavior,” ILR Review 71, no. 2 (2018): 329–64.
Anand, Priyanka, and Purvi Sevak. “The Role of Workplace Accommodations in the Employment of People with Disabilities,” IZA Journal of Labor Policy 6, no. 1 (2017): 1–20. https://izajolp.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40173-017-0090-4 External.
Armour, Philip, Patrick Button, and Simon Hollands. “Disability Saliency and Discrimination in Hiring,” AEA Papers and Proceedings 108 (May 2018): 262–66. www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/pandp.20181045 External.
Ben-Shalom, Yonatan. Steps States Can Take to Help Workers Keep their Jobs After Injury, Illness, Or Disability. Princeton: Mathematica Policy Research, September 13, 2016. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2083806052?accountid=12084External.
Boldon, Nyasha, and Rosalinda V. Maury. Operation Vetrepreneurship: Bridging the Gap: Motivations, Challenges, and Successes of Veteran Entrepreneurs. Report. Institute for Veterans and Military Families, Syracuse University. November 2017. https://ivmf.syracuse.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/OperationVetrepreneurshipBRIDGING-THE-GAP_Motivations-Challenges-and-Successes-of-Veteran-EntrepreneursINTERIMACC-1.pdf External.
Chan, Fong, Timothy N. Tansey, Julie Chronister, Brian T. McMahon, Kanako Iwanaga, Jia-Rung Wu, Xiangli Chen, et al. “Rehabilitation Counseling Practice in State Vocational Rehabilitation and the Effect of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA),” Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling 48, no.3 (Fall 2017): 20–28.
Choe, Chung, and Marjorie L. Baldwin. 2017. “Duration of Disability, Job Mismatch and Employment Outcomes,” Applied Economics 49, no. 10–12 (2017): 1001–15.
Davis, Deborah. “Support Disability in Business to Create a Cycle of Success,” Abilities.com. November 7, 2019. www.abilities.com/community/disability-entrepreneurs.html External.
Dean, David, Robert Schmidt, John Pepper, and Steven Stern. “The Effects of Vocational Rehabilitation for People with Physical Disabilities,” Journal of Human Capital 12, no.1 (2018): 1–37.
Department of Veterans Affairs. Non-Competitive Special Hiring Authorities for Veterans. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs, 2018.
Elmicke, William, Steven Cohen, and Alison Miller. The Ticket to Work Program: Helping the Disabled to Achieve Self-Sufficiency. Manhattan Institute, 2017. https://media4.manhattan-institute.org/sites/default/files/R-TTW-0317.pdf External.
Fiala, Elisa. 2018. “A Brave New World of Work through the Lens of Disability,” Societies 8, no. 2 (May 5, 2018): 27. www.mdpi.com/2075-4698/8/2/27/htm External.
Harrington, Samantha. “Women with Disabilities Face High Barriers to Entrepreneurship. How to Change That.” Forbes, January 31, 2018. www.forbes.com/sites/samanthaharrington/2018/01/31/women-with-disabilities-face-high-barriers-to-entrepreneurship-how-to-change-that/#5f0b2f619dcc External.
Hymowitz, Carol. “Seventy Is the New Sixty-Five.” Bloomberg Businessweek, October 2018, 43–44.
Jobs for Veterans State Grants Program. GAO Reports, January 2019: 44.
Kim, Soojin, and Serena Rhee. Measuring the Effects of Employment Protection Policies: Theory and Evidence from the Americans with Disabilities Act. Labour Economics 54 (October 2018): 116–34.
Kneipp, Shawn, and Kerry Desjardins. Tapping into the Potential of Public Health and Social Services Partnerships: A Framework to Improve Outcomes for Disadvantaged Workers. Policy & Practice (19426828) 75, no. 4 (2017): 12–37.
Mason, Ameri, Lisa Schur, Adya Meera, Bentley F. Scott, Patrick McKay, and Douglas Kruse. “The Disability Employment Puzzle: A Field Experiment on Employer Hiring Behavior,” Industrial & Labor Relations Review 71, no. 2 (2018): 329–64.
Maury, Rosalinda V. Veteran Entrepreneurship—What You Should Know. Compiled by Institute for Veterans and Military Families. Infographic. Institute for Veterans and Military Families, Syracuse University. August 1, 2018. https://ivmf.syracuse.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/COE-Veteran-Entrepreneurship-One-pager-7.31.18.pdf External.
Maury, Rosalinda V., Nicholas Armstrong, and Brice Stone. Enhancing Veterans’ Access to STEM Education and Careers: A Labor Market Analysis of Veterans in the STEM Workforce. Technical paper. Institute for Veterans and Military Families, Syracuse University. December 2018. https://ivmf.syracuse.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/IVMF_Veterans-in-STEM-Brief_dec-2018_Final.pdf External.
Military One Source. “VA Benefits for Disabled Veterans and Service Members,” www.militaryonesource.mil. December 12, 2018. www.militaryonesource.mil/military-life-cycle/veterans/va-benefits-for-disabled-veterans-and-service-members External.
Okyle, Carly. “This Program Wants to Help People with Disabilities Become Entrepreneurs,” Entrepreneur.com. May 27, 2015. www.entrepreneur.com/article/246536 External.
Ross, Martha, and Nicole Bateman. “Only Four Out of Ten Working-Age Adults with Disabilities Are Employed,” The Avenue. July 25, 2018. www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2018/07/25/only-four-out-of-ten-working-age-adults-with-disabilities-are-employed External.
Smalligan, Jack and Chantel Boyens. Supporting Employment for Newly Ill and Injured Workers: Evidence on Early Intervention. Urban Institute. January 2019. www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/99660/supporting_employment_for_newly_ill_and_injured_workers.pdf External.
Torpey, Elka. “Projected Openings in Occupations with High Employment Rates for People with Disabilities,” Career Outlook. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. October 2017. www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2017/data-on-display/disabilities-employment.htm?view_full External.
Yamamoto, Scott H. and Deborah L. Olson. “Vocational Rehabilitation Employment of People with Disabilities: Descriptive Analysis of US Data from 2008 to 2012,” Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling 47, no. 4 (Winter 2016): 3–9.
Provides digital books, including the Employment and Career Development Collection from Lighthouse International, to US citizens who have visual or other print disabilities that prevent reading regular print. Offers individual and school subscriptions.
Provides occupational requirements and trends, labor-market conditions, nationwide employer contacts, and a career-resource library. Offers job seekers a place to post a resume or search for job openings and employers a place to post job listings.
Career Opportunities for Students with Disabilities
Assists higher education professionals teaching students with disabilities and encourages employers to consider those same students once they have graduated.
Provides a job board for people with disabilities. Works closely with disability organizations and state vocational rehabilitation departments across the United States.
Shares information and statistics on disability-related workplace issues and laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Maintains partnerships with many top job boards. Maintains alliances with several of diversity organizations that offer education, leadership, and networking opportunities for diverse professionals.
Provides job seekers with disabilities resources to improve their chances of finding and securing new positions.
Job Accommodation Network Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies
Lists vocational rehabilitation offices in alphabetical order by state.
Provides occupational information that can be searched by occupation or by skills. Replaces the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
Ticket to Work
Provides information about the Ticket to Work and Self Sufficiency program, including news, resources, and employment networks.
Vocational Information Center
Provides general information about vocational education, career and technical education, and workforce preparation.